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Essay On Mutation

Essay on Gender and Genetic Mutations

964 Words4 Pages

The study of genetics includes not only the study of normal DNA, but also of the mutations within a DNA. A mutation is a slightly distorted gene. These mutations can have an effect on a person, both physically and mentally. Although genetics may seem to be just about the genes, scientists are beginning to see a connection between gender and genetic mutations. Meet Henry, a man with dark hair, and Katie, a woman with gapped teeth. The couple has a child and from their physical description, we know that the child may turn out to have dark hair and gapped teeth. These simple examples are what color the fundamentals of genetics, but what if Henry and Katie have twin children. One child is a girl and she has dark hair…show more content…

There are many types of genetic conditions. Genetic mutations cause these genetic conditions. Genetic mutations can occur if there is an extra chromosome in a gene, if there is a missing chromosome, or even if there is a distorted chromosome. Some genetic conditions include autism, food allergies, and Down syndrome. Through much study, scientists have found that in certain genetic conditions, gender does play a role. Evan Eichler is a geneticist at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. Small studies had hinted that girls could endure far more harmful autism-linked mutations than boys before developing the disease. So he and colleagues decided to probe whether this association held up in a bigger group of people diagnosed with autism or with other disorders that trace to changes in how the brain develops. To do this, the team tapped into two large collections of genetic data. One came from more than 15,000 people with intellectual disabilities. A second came from 762 families, each with an autistic child. Eichler’s team suspects that parents of the kids in the two groups it studied had such mutations and then passed them along to their children. On average, females in both of the studied groups had more harmful mutations than did the males. This was true for large chunks of missing or repeated DNA as well as for small, single letter mutations. “No matter what class of mutation we looked at, females had more,” Eichler says. Consider

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Genetic Mutations Essay


Genetic Mutations
Introduction
A genetic mutation is a permanent change in the sequence of the DNA that makes up a gene. A mutation of these sorts can be caused by either inheritance from the parent or caused sometime during the life of someone. The mutation that has been inherited is called a germline mutation. Germline mutations affect virtually the entire body, and they seem to be present in every cell. A somatic mutation, or one that is caused in the DNA of a single cell sometime during the life, can be caused by an environmental factor or a wrong bonding in the DNA molecule. These cannot be passed down to the next generation of children because they occur in a specific cell as opposed to in a reproductive cell. Some mutations occur in the embryo as it is growing. These may occur during cell division, and some of the cells may or may not inherit this mutation. Some mutations are extremely rare, and others are incredibly common. Those that occur in more than one percent across a population are considered polymorphisms. Polymorphisms are considered normal variations in DNA, and they are known to cause simple changes such as variations in blood types and hair color. Although these are not typically fatal, they can influence the creation of some disorders (Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, USA.gov, 2013).
Undiagnosed Diseases Caused by Mutations
Most diseases are caused by a type of genetic component. Many of the diseases that have been caused by gene mutations are undiagnosed. These remain undiagnosed because the disease is so rare that the doctor does not know how to diagnose the patient. Many symptoms vary between diseases, and the symptoms may seem unclear of the specific disease to which it belongs. If the disease is extremely rare, most doctors will not know how to diagnose the patient because of the lack of knowledge about that disease. If the disease is undiagnosed, there is no way to treat the disease. If there is no way to treat the disease, there is a vast possibility of the child dying or being incredibly dependent on the parent or other guardian figure (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2011).
Diseases Caused by Genetic Mutations
A morphological mutation is one that affects the physical appearance of the mutant. A restrictive condition is one that requires a certain environment to make the mutation become visible and effective. Lethal mutations also may occur. These mutations cause death among the individual, hence the phrase, “lethal mutation”. The death can occur either before or after the birth of the individual (McClean, 1999).
Down Syndrome
Craig Raine said in his book Heartbreak,
Begin with the soft smelted upturned heart-shaped mouth made for smiling a smile kept for kindness, tenderness, incapable of malice. Am I going too fast for you? But the face is streamlined. Neither...

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